An Artillery Battery is a unit that specializes in heavy fire power weapons. Modern day artillery units carry rockets, mortars, and missiles. However, during the time of the civil war, this generally meant one thing.
And variations thereof.
Historically a “Battery” consisted of a group of cannons, howitzers, and mortars coordinating fire. The Cannons and Howitzers are defined by the weight of the ordinance it can hurl. Therefore, a 10lb cannon can fire a 10lb cannon ball. According to www.civilwarhome.com, the term “Light Artillery” indicated that the cannoniers were mounted and therefore could move faster than their unmounted counterparts. The guns were typically lower in weight in order to aid in their mobility.
Another civil war blog, To the Sound of the Guns, lists ordinance records and inventory from various Indiana Batteries including the 10th. According to these inventories, the unit carried two 12pd field howitzers and four 10pd Parrotts. For those who are interested, To the Sound of the Guns also lists inventories of related equipment gleaned at various points from the units.
Image of a 10lb Parrott
Image of a 12 lb Howitzer
After this battle the battery remained in the vicinity of Murfreesboro until the forward movement against Tullahoma was commenced.
On the morning of the 26th of December with Wood’s division, it broke up its encampment in the vicinity of Nashville, and marching with the left wing of the Fourteenth Army Crops to Lavergne, portions of the enemy were there encountered and some fighting ensued. On the 29th, the division moved forward, Cox’s battery supporting Wagner’s brigade, and on arriving within two miles and a half of Murfreesboro the rebel army, under Bragg, was discovered in full force, in line of battle. The division was halted for the afternoon and night. On the following day, the skirmishers kept up an active fire with the enemy, the rebels and about nine A.M., opening fire upon Cox’s battery (which was between the pike and the railroad, and it’s front partly covered in woods.) The artillery fire of the enemy was soon silenced by the well directed shots of the battery.
On the 31st the engagement became general and during the day the extreme left of the division became the object of the enemy’s attention. Skirmishers were seen descending the slope on the opposite side of Stone River, as also working their way down the stream for the purpose apparently, of gaining our left flank and rear. A few well directed charges of grape and canister from Cox’s battery, drove the enemy’s artillery, posted on the heights on the southern side of the river. The enemy concluded his operations against left as night approached, by opening on it with his artillery. Cox’s battery gallantly and effectually replied, but darkness soon put an end to this battery dual.
On the 1st of January, 1863, the division lay in line of battle all day, with nothing more than picket firing and an occasional artillery dual to break the silence. On the 2d the artillery firing was kept up quite heavily during most of the day, and on the following day the battle ended with occasional picket firing. During the entire engagement at Stone River the Tenth Battery had one killed and four wounded.
In November the battery returned to Nashville, via Glasgow, where it remained until General Rosencrans commenced his movement against Murfreesboro.
Note: The following is a section from the official Regimental history as recorded in the Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana, Volume 3, by W.H.H. Terrell, Adjutant General, Indiana, 1866. Additional excerpts will be posted prior to each major movement of the regiment, with links to sites detailing the histories of the battles that are indicated in the report.
The Tenth Battery of Light Artillery was ordered to be raised on the 13th of November, 1861 and was recruited in the Eight Congressional District during the remainder of the fall and winter of that year, with recruiting headquarters at Lafayette. Rendezvousing at Indianapolis it was there mustered into service on the 25th of January, 1861 with Jermone B Cox as Captain and on the same day left the state capital for Louisville. At that place it went into Camp Gilbert, where it remained until February 1862, drilling and preparing for the Tennessee campaign. Joining General Nelson’s division of Buell’s army, it marched with it to Nashville, assisting in the capture of that place.
In March, the division moved to the Tennessee river and crossing over participated in the Battle of Shiloh on the second day. The battery, however, owing to the lack of transportation, was compelled to remain at Savannah until after the battle. After camping on the field of Shiloh for a brief period the battery moved with the army against Corinth and participated in the siege of that place. Upon its evacuation it marched with Buell’s army into Northern Alabama to Athens where it was placed in the reserved artillery. Remaining there until the latter part of July, it then moved to Decherd Station, Tennessee, where it joined Gen. Thomas J. Wood’s division and, with that division, campaigned through Northern Alabama and Southern Tennessee. Upon the advance of Bragg’s army it fell back to Nashville, and from thence marched through Kentucky to Louisville. From Louisville the battery moved through Kentucky, participating in the campaign that ended in driving from that state the rebel General Bragg’s invading army.